by Antero Alli
What is 'paratheatre' ?
Aug. 11, 1933 - Jan. 14, 1999
The term "paratheatre" was coined by the late Polish theatre director, Jerzy Grotowski, to address a highly dynamic and visceral approach to performance that aimed to erase traditional divisions between spectators and performers. Paratheatre was also executed outdoors in the forests of Poland as non-performance events. After 1975, Grotowski withdrew from theatre entirely as a public performance medium to redirect his focus towards non-performance oriented group dynamics that developed through various stages: Paratheatre (1969-78), Theatre of Sources (1976-1982), Objective Drama (1983-86), and Art as Vehicle (1986-present). Grotowski's work continues today at the WORK CENTER OF JERZY GROTOWSKI AND THOMAS RICHARDS in Pontedera, Italy.
CLICK THIS FOR DETAILS ON THE STAGES OF GROTOWSKI'S WORK
Paratheatre, Theatre of Sources, Objective Drama, and Art as Vehicle
CLICK THIS FOR GROTOWSKI'S LIFETIME CHRONOLOGY
Courtesy of Polish Cultural Institute, New York
Paratheatre Beyond Grotowski
ParaTheatrical ReSearch PDX workspace, Portland OR
What groups or individuals are active in paratheatre?
Currently, there are numerous offshoots and hybrids of Grotowski-informed work (those who have worked personally with Grotowski and Thomas Richards) and Grotowski-inspired work by groups and individuals all over the world. Listed below are groups and their directors fully commited to paratheatre and paratheatre-related projects in the U.S.A.:
Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, (Pontedera, Italy)
Matt Mitler; director, Theatre Dzieci (NYC)
Antero Alli; director, ParaTheatrical ReSearch (Portland OR)
Stacy Klein, director, Double Edge Theatre (Amherst MA)
Joseph Lavy, Jennifer Lavy; co-directors, Akropolis Performance Lab (Seattle WA)
James Slowiak, Jairo Cuesta; co-directors, New World Performance Laboratory (Akron OH)
Additional groups in related fields, in and outside the U.S.A. listed at:
ParaTheatrical ReSearch Links
Are you doing paratheatre as defined by Grotowski?
No. ParaTheatrical ReSearch is Grotowski-inspired, not Grotowski-informed or defined. The term "paratheatre", like the term "theatre", demands periodic updating and redefining to serve the developing contexts of its practice and its practioners. Though inspired by Grotowski, this paratheatre medium neither follows or attempts to replicate his example. One important distinction that separates this training from Grotowski is a standing meditation practice, referred to as "no-form", through which all the internal content and expression of this paratheatrical approach issues forth. External forms, such as songs and text, are used in performance to frame and give context to the organic, unpredictable processes of this no-form practice.
No-Form practice ("Dreambody/earthbody video/Lab; Berkeley 2012)
Explain the purpose of this "no-form" method.
The purpose of no-form: 1) to deepen internal receptivity to autonomous forces in the body towards their engagement and expression and 2) to discharge identification with these very forces after each engagement. This conscious engagement with, and disengagement from, these energies minimizes the ego-inflation that can result from any influx of Subconscious contents into the conscious ego. It must said here that I view the physical body, with all its hidden organs and complex interactive bio-systems, as the embodiment of the Subconscious mind. Paratheatre work serves as a kind of excavation process for making the unconscious, conscious. We are exploring somatic rituals for what Carl Jung calls "active imagination" by using No-Form to set up interactions between the conscious and unconscious dimensions of our existence.
Borrowed from Buddhist Zazen practice, this No-Form meditative process is not approached as any spiritual path to samadhi or "enlightenment". We also do not practice no-form while sitting but standing and jogging as a preparation for movement, action, and asocial group interaction. This No-Form process is used as a tool -- not as any end in itself - for cultivating a deeper internal receptivity to the body's underlying vital currents as movement resources -- animating patterns of physical movement, action, gesture, sound and interaction from the internal landscape. And then, disidentifying with these very forces after their expression.
Click this for more on "No-Form"
"Soror Mystica" (performance; Portland OR, December 2017)
Is paratheatre the same as improvisation? How do participants
interact with each other? Describe your training process.
This paratheatre work differs from improvisation as commonly experienced and defined in theatre and dance. Interaction in this work does not depend on wanting anything from others - performers or audience - to spark, sustain, or motivate interaction. Paratheatrical group interaction is introduced after participants have been able to fully commit to their internal sources and their physical and vocal expression -- marking the primary goal of the beginning stages of this paratheatre training. This high level of self-commitment results in an expansion of subtle yet felt presence that eventually acts on others, just as the expanding presence of others acts on oneself -- in a kind of miraculous interaction of self-governing bodies. They are "miraculous" as they appear to happen by themselves, spontaneously, without the "pushing" of personal effort. By deepening commitment to one's internal sources while interacting with others, a unique group unity unfolds that supports individual integrity and autonomy in what we call asocial group interplay.
Initially this asocial approach can frustrate any unmet social needs and considerations -- such as seeking acceptance, approval, friendship, courtship, and emotional support from others. This is why participants are asked to meet their social needs outside of the workspace. Though our social needs are obviously important, they can also obscure and inhibit creativity and a more honest spontaneous response.
This asocial approach begins with realizing a certain non-responsibility to others. Participants are asked to make a silent vow to themselves for becoming accountable for their own safety and well being. By agreeing to make ourselves safe in the face of upset or overwhelm, we can defuse the often unconscious parent/child dynamics in the workspace; we do not wait for a "mom or dad" to make us safe. When we feel safe enough to take risks, we are also more free to fully commit to the moment, the state we're in, the internal sources animating our expression; we are more free to play. An asocial climate supports a more organic expression innate to our being, rather than from the complex web of socially-accepted conditions and obligations.
Paratheatre training occurs in a non-performance setting. Without an audience to impress or to entertain or to please, the external pressures to perform are released and replaced by Self-commitment -- the self-created pressures of increasing our commitment to the given state, the experience and actions at hand. Self-commitment, in this approach, is not the same as narcissistic self-indulgence. No-form practice dissolves the tendency to ego-inflation or identification or fixation with any one self-image. In this training, the authentic self is served and developed so we may have something of value to offer: the total offering of the self.
"Bardoville" (performance; Portland OR, May 2017)
How does ParaTheatrical ReSearch present itself to the public?
ParaTheatrical ReSearch presents itself in four distinct public formats: 1) Witnessing (a public invitation to witness an actual Lab session with no explanaton of actions) 2) Lecture-Demonstration (explanation of the work accompanied by demonstration) 3) Performance (where specific ritual structures are accompanied by poetic text, song and/or live music) and 4) Video documents (representations of performance and non-performance modes). The history of ParaTheatrical ReSearch public events is listed at Public Event History.
Between 1977 and 2015, ParaTheatrical ReSearch was primarily a non-performance oriented process where most of our work focused on training and without an audience or any witnesses beyond the facilitator. This intensive longterm training process required a private, uninterrupted work environment to achieve its various asocial, kinetic, spiritual, and creative objectives.
In early October of 2015, after twenty highly productive years in Berkeley California, ParaTheatrical ReSearch (Antero and Sylvi Alli) relocated to Portland Oregon to reinvent itself as a performance vehicle for the creation of new works of experimental theatre. Our first production, "A Turbulence of Muses" (text by Arthur Rimbaud), a Symbolist Ritual premiered December 2-4, 2016. Our next production, "Bardoville" (text by C. Bukowski; vocal creations by E.V.E., Sylvi, director), an Intermedia Performance Ritual, premiered May 12-14, 2017 (to critical acclaim from Oregon ArtsWatch). Our most recent producton, "Soror Mystica" premiered December 1-3, 2017 (also to critical acclaim from Oregon ArtsWatch). Our next experimental theatre production, "Fallen Monsters", premieres May 11-13, 2018. All productions staged at PerformanceWorks Northwest, PDX.
"A Turbulence of Muses" (performance; Portland OR, December 2016)
How do you define ParaTheatrical ReSearch as a company?
ParaTheatrical ReSearch PDX is not a company of fixed players as much as a kind of molting group that develops each new performance work with those best suited for the unique challenges of each production. Though a core group of individuals persists in each work, we remain open to inquiries from others across the performance spectrum - theatre, dance, voice, music, clown, martial arts, vaudeville - who wish to work with us. Sometimes those invited to join us also participate in Paratheatre training to learn the fundamentals of our unique somatic language. ParaTheatrical ReSearch PDX is a non-union, self-funded collective.
What are examples of practical applications of paratheatre methods?
Paratheatre methods can be applied to almost any performance and/or artistic medium in a number of ways. From pre-performance warm-up processes (for actors, singers, dancers) to strengthening performance stamina and presence and, post-performance diffusion of excess emotional charge. These methods have been applied in numerous artistic mediums -- Theatre, Dance, Painting, Sculpture, Poetry, Music, Song, Cinema, etc. -- and wherever greater access is desired to unleash the deep creativity of the Unconscious. Non-artistic values and applications include spiritual experience (worship), new models of interaction (asocial interplay), and anxiety management (self-work).
"Orphans of Delirium" (Paratheatre Lab/Video, Berkeley ; 2004)
How is craft defined and developed in this paratheatre medium?
The development of craft in this paratheatre medium occurs over time with consistent application in 3 areas of work: identification, service, and sustaining care. All three areas are intimately linked with no final graduations or arrivals; all three overlap and contain components of each other.
The first stage starts with cultivating enough internal receptivity -- via No-Form practice -- to detect, engage and merge with energy sources in the body itself. Identification starts with a conscious choice to surrender to whatever source we are accessing in full-bodied immersive experience. The results can be chaotic, convulsive, ecstatic, and melodramatic without communicating anything beyond the catharsis of self-expression.
The second stage involves a shift away from merging, with whatever source we have identified with, towards serving its innate directives. This shift clarifies the forces in their innate patterns of motion, distinct characteristics, and rhythms -- resulting in more economy of movement and expression of whatever internal sources are engaged and identified with.
The third stage involves an emotional investment in whatever source we are serving. This can occur by discovering what we care most about the source we are engaging and allowing this emotion of care to sustain our movement and expression. Sustaining care happens after engaging whatever source we are accessing, rather than from any preconception of what we might care about. Sustaining care arouses empathy for whatever internal source we are engaging and serving.
ParaTheatrical ReSearch PDX workspace, 2016 and beyond
How can one participate in a ParaTheatrical ReSearch Lab?
Paratheatre training now occurs in weekend intensives scheduled twice a year in February and September. Some of those participating in these weekend intensives may be invited into the next Paratheatre Performance Lab (running ten to twelve weeks, once a week) to collaborate in the next production of experimental theatre. Two Performance Labs are conducted each year with productions scheduled for late Spring (May) and early Winter (December). All Paratheatre Labs, intensives, and performances now occur in Portland, Oregon.
Interested parties, contact Antero:
or call 503-299-4064 and leave a message
What books on paratheatre do you recommend?
click above images for product information and book excerpts
Towards a Poor Theatre by Jerzy Grotowski; click this for excerpt
At Work with Grotowski on Physical Actions by Thomas Richards
Heart of Practice by Thomas Richards
The Empty Space by Peter Brook
An Acrobat of the Heart by Stephen Wangh
Towards an Archeology of the Soul by Antero Alli; click this for excerpt
GROTOWSKI on "Verticality"
"We can see this phenomena in the categories of energy: heavy but
organic energies (linked to the forces of life, to instincts, to sensuality)
and other energies, more subtle. The question of verticality means to
pass from a so-called coarse level -- in a certain sense one could say
an “everyday level” -- to a level of energy more subtle or even
towards the higher connection". - Jerzy Grotowski
Watch Clips and Full Videos
from six Paratheatre Video Documents (1992-2017)
by Antero and others
"State of Emergence"
a paratheatre manifesto by Antero Alli
firstname.lastname@example.org and 503-299-4064